Bibliography

AmericanForests.org. 2016. Forest Facts. American Forests. http://www.americanforests.org/explore-forests/forest-facts./

Crann Trees for Ireland. “Heritage Tree Hunt Survey.” www.crann.ie/heritage_tree_hunt_survey-objectid-1061-recordid-62-z-project.htm.

  • Crann Trees for Ireland is one of the non-profit, non-governmental organizations mentioned throughout this project. Their main goal is to educate and enlighten people as to what a heritage tree is, and the significance they have in the ecosystem and in Ireland’s past. In this resource, they detail what exactly a heritage tree is and their view on them. They also allow for memberships; citizens of Ireland can directly influence and be apart of Crann Trees for Ireland. This creates the purest form of what heritage trees mean to the people of Ireland.

Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine. 2014. Forests, products and people. Ireland’s forest policy – a renewed vision. Department of Agriculture Food and the Marine, Dublin.

  • There is an emphasis in Irish Forest management currently on afforestation. This is the current Strategic goal of Ireland’s Forestry Management:

    “To develop an internationally competitive and sustainable forest sector that provides a full range of economic, environmental and social benefits to society and which accords with the Forest Europe definition of sustainable forest management .”

    This document covers their plans for expanding forest resources, resource management, environmental and public goods, supply chains, wood processing, forest protection/health, education training and research, standards and certifications, policy, funding and more.

Fennell, Aubrey. 2013. “Heritage Trees of Ireland.” The Collins Press (1): 1-308.

  • This is a non-fiction book written by Aubrey Fennell, whose main goal in writing the book was hunting down trees and listing them. This may not sound too interesting, but it really is. He details how precious and important trees are to Ireland’s heritage, where they can be found in Ireland and gives a rigorous list of over 150 trees which include rag trees, hanging trees, trees at holy wells, trees of distinct size or age, trees associated with historic events, and trees important to the community. Fennell has been apart of the Irish Tree Society since 1990 and has much experience with them. Written over a span of 15 years, this book is one of the most detailed books about the heritage trees of Ireland.

Flechard, Marie-Christine, Matthew S. Carroll, Patricia J. Cohn, and Áine Ní Dhubháin. “The changing relationships between forestry and the local community in rural northwestern Ireland An earlier version of this paper was presented at the IUFRO 3.08 conference “Small-scale Forestry and Rural Development,” 18-23 June 2006, Galway, Ireland.” Canadian journal of forest research 37, no. 10 (2007): 1999-2009.

  • This study was conducted due to a curiosity in the different perspectives in afforestry (planting trees even where they didn’t used to exist) and the reservations to having new trees planted in local communities.  They wanted to know why this aversion to afforestry is prevalent when timber supplies and trees are more and more essential as a resource as logging industries grow.  It explains Irish forests, explaining that Ireland was once covered in them before human settlement and lists some common trees.  The authors data was a compilation of interviews and historical sources.  They very much used narrative analyses.  They have a detailed explanation of the historical narrative of forestry in Ireland and a hefty summary of the interviews.  They concluded that there quite a bit of hostility towards the overall forestry industry in this area of Ireland.

Forestry Focus. “Heritage Trees.”  Society of Irish Foresters.  http://www.forestryfocus.ie/social-environmental-aspects/cultural-heritage/trees-and-folklore/heritage-trees/

  • Forestry Focus is another non-profit, non-organizational group that advocates and seeks to educate the public about heritage trees and the trees of Ireland. Forestry Focus is an initiative of the Society of Irish Foresters. Not only do they describe what a heritage tree is, they relate to culture and the impact that heritage trees have on it. In addition, they talk about trees and folklore. Literature is a large part of this organizations rhetoric, and allows for not only an understanding of the trees but gives a portal and way to relate heritage trees to other larger areas.

Forest Sector Development/COFORD Division of the Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine (2014). Irish Forests and the Economy. COFORD. http://www.coford.ie/.

  • Forests are an important part of Ireland’s economy and related industries have been growing, for recreation, afforestation, and timber companies.  This document provides solid statistics on Irish economics in relation to forestry.  For instance, between 200 and 2012, the export of sawed softwood increased 195%.  Every year more than 18,000,000 people visit Irish forests.

Forest Sector Development/COFORD Division of the Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine (2014). Irish Forests and Recreation. COFORD. http://www.coford.ie/.

  • Irish forest recreation is run by Coillte, National Parks and Wildlife Service (NPWS) and Waterways Ireland.  Forest recreation is growing in Europe as a whole.  Issues of overcrowding from forest tourism has received little attention but could start to become a problem.  It is expected this type of recreation will continue to grow in the upcoming years.  The Irish have been doing research on the benefits of forests for peoples health and are starting to look more into the benefits and protection of urban forests.

Liam. 2014. “Ireland Natural Royalty: The Heritage Trees of Ireland.” Irish Fireside Podcast & Blog. irishfiresideblog.com/2014/03/20/heritage-trees-ireland/.

  • This is a blog entry written in one of Ireland’s prominent news and blog portal’s. The blogpost itself is about the book “Heritage Trees of Ireland” written by Aubrey Fennell. It gives the opinion of what the Irish people themselves feel about heritage trees and increases credibility of the book itself. This is a great resource for understanding how Irish citizens feel about Irish forests.

Mill, Greig Andrew, Tom M. Van Rensburg, Stephen Hynes, and Conor Dooley. “Preferences for multiple use forest management in Ireland: Citizen and consumer perspectives.” Ecological Economics 60, no. 3 (2007): 642-653.

O’Neill, Barry. 2016. “Heritage Trees of Ireland.” National Biodiversity Data Centre. https://data.gov.ie/dataset/heritage-trees-of-ireland.

  • The National Biodiversity Data Centre produced this metadata on the current heritage tree locations in Ireland, and the future projected heritage tree locations in Ireland. This data can be used to make maps on QGIS and understand the location of trees and where the Irish government hopes they’ll be in the future.

Rossi, Richard E., David J. Mulla, Andre G. Journel, and Eldon H. Franz. “Geostatistical tools for modeling and interpreting ecological spatial dependence.” Ecological monographs 62, no. 2 (1992): 277-314.

  • Ecology is a science that studies spatial and temporal patterns, so it makes sense that one would use spatial data in studies. This article explains different methods of interpreting spatial dependence in ecological tools, and then goes into depth of geostatistical data, which is described as, ” a branch of applied statistics that focuses on the detection, modeling, and estimation of spatial patterns.” This includes variography and kriging, which the article disseminates the differences of. This is an in depth explanation of the geostatistical approach to ecology and it’s benefits, as well as what a researcher must be cognizant of. It goes into detail the steps of using geostatistics, such as analyzing all exploratory data first, gives examples of geostatistics and other ecological data methods, and explains how to use them. It gives a good explanation of the math involved.

Sandelowski, Margarete. “Telling stories: Narrative approaches in qualitative research.” Image: the journal of nursing scholarship 23, no. 3 (1991): 161-166.

  • Human’s are narrative beings. This article starts by talking about the various professional’s such as doctors who in their daily lives need to use narrative analyses, and discusses the methods these scientists use to critically look at the narrative and maintain a “literary consciousness.” The use of third person and passive voice, for instance are viewed as “anti-narrative” and distancing strategies for the author between him or herself and what is being said. The author says narrative analyses allows the linking between different fields of study. She discusses the difficulty in discerning truth from a narrative when truth itself is often vague, interpreted differently, and misconstrued.
Tree Council of Ireland. “Heritage Trees of Ireland.” treecouncil.ie/?s=irish+heritage+trees.
  • The Tree Council of Ireland is one of the most prominent groups in terms of advocating for the importance of trees. They were cited by Aubrey Fennell in his novel and have influenced other groups such as Forestry Focus and Crann Trees for Ireland. Included in their site is a very detailed list of every type of tree in Ireland and also they give a short bio on heritage trees. While their main focus is trees in general, heritage trees are apart of their interests and one of the goals they’re working toward. It’s a great resource for trying to understand what citizens of Ireland are actively trying to do in order to preserve and foster a healthy and plausible environment for trees to grow and thrive.

UNEP (2016): The UNEP Environmental Data Explorer, as compiled from Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) – Global Forest Resources Assessment (FRA) 2010 . United Nations Environment Programme. http://ede.grid.unep.ch.

UNEP (2016): The UNEP Environmental Data Explorer, as compiled from Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) – FAOStat . United Nations Environment Programme. http://ede.grid.unep.ch.

U.S. Forest Service. People and Forests. United States Department of Agriculture. http://www.fs.fed.us/science-technology/people-forests.